A 1983 movie was made about Rudolph, Spaces, by Bob Eisenhardt.
PAUL MARVIN RUDOLPH, FAIA (1918-1997)
Rudolph grew up in Elkton KY. His father was an itinerant minister whose travels exposed his son to architecture in the American South. In 1940 Rudolph earned his Bachelors degree in Architecture at Auburn University (then known as Alabama Polytechnic Institute). After working briefly with E. B. Van Koeren in Birmingham and Ralph Twitchell in Sarasota, he entered the Harvard Graduate School of Design in 1941 to study under Bauhaus founderWalter Gropius.
In 1942, Rudolph began Naval officer training at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Princeton University. Afterwards, he served in the Navy for three years before returning to Harvard to earn his Masters degree in 1947.
In 1948, Rudolph won Harvard Graduate School of Design’s annual $100,000 traveling fellowship. He traveled throughout Europe until the summer of 1949 when Ralph Twitchell offered him full partnership. Rudolph moved to Sarasota FL for that job until 1951 when he founded his own firm.
In Florida, Rudolph became a leader of the Sarasota Style of architecture associated with architects Ralph Twitchell, Ralph Zimmerman, William Zimmerman, Philip Hiss, Jack West, Gene Leedy, Mark Hampton, Phil Hall, Roland Sellew, Tim Seibert, Victor Lundy, Bill Rupp, John and Ken Warriner, Tolyn Twitchell, Bert Brosmith, Frank Folsom Smith, Boyd Blackner, Louis Schneider, James Holiday, Joseph Farrell, and Carl Abbott. The Sarasota Style emphasized architecture in harmony with its surroundings. To that end, its signature elements were clean, open floor plans; terrazzo floors; an abundance of natural light from extensive glazing; and flat roofs with wide overhangs to shade the glazing. Ralph Twitchell's nephew, Jack Twitchell, built many of Rudolph’s houses.
Rudolph moved to the Yale School of Architecture as Dean in 1958, shortly after designing the Yale Art and Architecture Building, a structure considered his masterpiece, below. He stayed at Yale for six years until moving to New York in 1966. He inspired a generation of architects. The public, however, did not warm to his large brutalist designs, finding the intense use of concrete and steel to be ugly and oppressive.
In 1997, Rudolph passed away in New York City. According to his obituary in The New York Times, “With the exception of Louis I. Kahn, no American architect of his generation enjoyed higher esteem in the 1960’s. But after 1970, his reputation plummeted. Many of his buildings are being torn down, or are in danger of being torn down. Mr. Rudolph leaves behind a perplexing legacy that will take many years to untangle."
At the time of his death he was working on plans for a new town of 250,000 people in Indonesia and several projects in Singapore.
In North Carolina, he designed the 1972 Burroughs Wellcome Headquarters shown below along with additions in 1976, 1978, and 1982. The entire site was sold to United Therapeutics in 2012.
1940 - The T. P. Atkinson Residence, 628 East Samford, Auburn AL. Commissioned 1939. Rudolph was only 22 when he designed and supervised construction of this house for an Auburn University professor. Although not Modernist, the one-story brick building incorporated new technical innovations such as central heating, corner windows and a copper standing seam roof. Sold to Steve Etheridge. Sold in 2013 to Kathy and Bernis Simmons.
1941 - The Ralph Twitchell Residence, 101 Big Pass Lane, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Featured in Architectural Forum, September 1947. As of 1969, the owners were Garrison and Marjorie Creighton. Sold in 2005 to architect Joseph King. Damaged by fire, the house was dismantled and put into storage in 2007; the land was unbuilt as of 2013, bottom photo. Top photo by Sarasota County History Center. Next photo by Joseph Steinmetz. Remaining photos by Chris Mottalini.
1946 - The Alexander S. Harkavy Residence, Roberts Point, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Featured in Architectural Forum, September 1947. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. B/W photos by Joseph Steinmetz from Architectural Forum. Address unknown. Status unknown; possibly destroyed; needs verification.
1946 - The Marion Miller Boat House, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Unbuilt. Designed with Ralph Twitchell.
1946 - aka the Weekend House, Rudolph's graduate school project at Harvard. Unbuilt.
1947 - The Burt J. Denman Residence, 4822 Ocean Boulevard, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1946. Appeared in Progressive Architecture August 1950. Photos courtesy Library of Congress. Destroyed and replaced with these condos, bottom photo.
1947 - The Roberta Finney Guest House, aka Finney Guest Cottage, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Unbuilt.
1947- The Goar Residence, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Unbuilt.
1947 - The Shute Residence, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Unbuilt.
Main House, above
Guest House, above
1948 - The Marion "Monks" Miller Residence, 2209 Casey Key Road, Sarasota FL. Commissioned1947. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Won an 1949 Progressive Architecture Award. Rudolph and Twitchell also designed a 1949 guest house. Miller married Mario Lucci, who lived there until 1971. Sold to a person who expanded it. Author Stephen King lost the bidding to buyers Walter and Marilyn Kreiseder in 1999, who sought someone to move the main house prior to new construction. The main house was destroyed, as a new 25,000 sf home went up in 2003, bottom photo. The guest house fate is unknown.
1948 - The Maynard Erwin Russell Residence, Tahiti Park, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1947. Featured in Architectural Record January 1950, House and Garden December 1949. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Presumed destroyed. Address unsure; it could be at 945 Whitaker's Lane near Tahiti Parkway. Needs verification.
1948 - The Joseph Janney Steinmetz Photography Studio, 1614 Laurel Street, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1947. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Was significantly altered. Destroyed in the 2000's. Photos by Sarasota County Historical Resources. Included here because it could have easily been a cool house design.
1948 - The Lamolithic/Lambie Development,5528, 5540, 5544, 5546 Avenida Del Mare, four concrete houses in Sarasota FL. These photos are from 5540. Designed with Ralph Twitchell.
1948 - The Revere Quality House, 100 Ogden Lane, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. The house was a cooperative project between the architects, Architectural Forum, Revere Copper and Brass, and the builders Lamolithic Industries. There were originally going to be six houses. When the house opened, over 16,000 people visited the first year. Featured in House and Garden August 1949, Arcgitectural Review November 1948. 2008 restoration and addition by Guy Peterson/OFA. Added to the National Register in 2008. Sold to Robert K. and Mich Lobnitz. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1948 - The Albert T. and Lois Siegrist Residence, 520 Valencia Road, Venice FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Chosen as a house of "quality and significance" by the NY Museum of Modern Art for an exhibition in 1952. Featured in Progressive Architecture June 1949, Arts+Architecture April 1953. Sold around 1959 to Robert Leonard Corcoran and Vivian Corcoran. Sold and mostly destroyed by Italianate renovation in 1979, bottom photo (from 2010).
1949 - The Edward Deeds Residence, 5242 Avenida Del Mare, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1948. Featured in Architectural Forum April 1950. Renovations in 1969. Sold around 1983 to Marvin and Teresa Emery. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1949 - The Arthur Cheatham Pool and Pool House Addition, Lakeland FL. Address unknown. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Featured in Home and Garden, 1951. Still surviving as of 2015. B/W photo by Tom Leonard. Color photos and rendering by Tim Hills.
1950 - The W. R. Healy Guest House, aka the Cocoon House, 3575 Bayou Louise Lane, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1948. Featured in Architectural Forum June 1951, House and Home February 1952, Arts+Architecture June 1959. The roof structure is an original technological assembly: the steel straps are fastened to flexible insulation boards, and the roofing material, Cocoon, is sprayed on. This flexible vinyl compound was developed by the U.S. military to encase ship components from the weather. About 1955, it needed to be reroofed and a young Crutcher Ross was on that roofing crew. Sold to Barry J. (Jim) LaClair. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1951 - The Alan and Barbara Bennett Residence, 3901 Riverview Boulevard, Bradenton FL. Commissioned1949. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Sold to a new owner. Sold in 2001 to architect Joseph King who has written extensively on Rudolph. Top photo by Bobby Bennett. Sold in 2011 to Robin Zimmerman.
1951 - The W. W. Kerr Residence, 211 Oak Street, Melbourne Beach FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. 2900 sf. Sold in 1988 to Joseph and Hope Petrone. Restored by architect Larry Maxwell of Spacecoast Architects in 2007. Sold to Martine and Bina Rothblatt. For sale in 2015.
1951 - The Watson Residence, Gainesville FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell.
1951 - The Lucienne Twitchell Neilson Residence, Martha's Vineyard MA. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. The client was Twitchell's first wife. Commissioned 1947. Destroyed by fire.
1951 - The Marion Coward Residence, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Destroyed around 2005. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Address unknown; do you know where it was?
1951 - The Kate Wheelan Cottage, 9397 Midnight Pass Road, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Destroyed for a multi-family development. Photos from Perspecta.
1951 - The Haywood Apartments, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Unbuilt.
1951 - The Eugene Knotts Residence, Yankeetown FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Knotts did not like the Rudolph design, citing price and insufficient structural integrity of the roof among other concerns, so the project was abandoned.
Rudolph left the firm around that time and architect Jack West joined. West created a new but more classic Modernist design for Knotts, bottom photo, which was built by Twitchell's brother. Still there as of 2015.
1952 - The Walter W. and Elaine Walker Guest House, aka Cannonball House, 4143 West Gulf Drive, Sanibel Island FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1951. A year earlier Rudolph designed the Walkers a primary residence which was not built. Color photos by Lloyd Alter. Bottom four photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Sold in 2013 to John R. Priest, trustee. A replica of the guest house, built by architect Joe King and others, will be on display at the Ringling Museum for a year beginning 2015.
1952 - The Floating Islands Project, Leesburg FL. Unbuilt.
1952 - The Haskins Residence, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1951.
1952 - The Maehlman Guest House, Naples FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1951. Photos courtesy Library of Congress. Built. Featured in Interior Magazine, September 1952. Address unknown. Status unknown.
1953 - The Sigma Alpha Epsilon Fraternity House, University of Miami, Miami FL. According to Architectural Forum 99, there were two distinct and separate wings, both two stories high. One contains bedrooms, the other contains the living area. Between them is a spacious court and cylindrical building containing a glassed-in dining room on the lower level and a chapter room on the upper level with louvered walls can be closed to provide privacy for secret cabals. Unbuilt.
1953 - The Nathan S. Rubin Residence, 1221 North Barcelona, Pensacola FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Sold in 1999 to Catherine D. Kress.
1953 - The Bourne Company Residence, St. Petersburg, FL. Unbuilt.
1953 - The Mahony House, 1205 Donna Drive, Fort Myers FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1952. Sold to J. Maggie Stevens and Steve Funnel.
1953 - The Louis C. Cerrito and Ruth Hale Cerrito Addition, oceanfront on Bernard Avenue, Sarasota FL. According to their son Charles Cerrito, Ralph Twitchell designed the original house in 1948, top photo. The addition was commissioned in 1952. The house was sold by Cerrito's heirs and destroyed in the early 2000's.
1953 - The Lido Shores Show House, aka the Hiss House, aka the Umbrella House, 1300 Westway Drive, Lido Shore, Sarasota FL. Built by Philip Hiss. Sold in the mid-1950's to the Sommers family. Featured in House and Home July 1954 and Arts+Architecture October 1953. The umbrella-like trellis was destroyed in 1966 by Hurricane Alma. Sold in 1969 to Ross and Rachel Van Tilborg. Sold in 1998 to Gary and Carol Stover. After several years on the market, it was sold in 2005 to Vincent and Julie Ciulla. Sold in 2015 to Bob and Anne Essner.
1953 - The Ingram Hook Guest Residence, 160 Sandy Hook Road, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1952. Featured in Arts+Architecture June 1959. Bottom three photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Addition by Walter Maycomber in 1979. Sold to Theodore and Honorine Super. Sold to Robert F. and Doro Brown.
1953 - The James Stroud and Jessie Boyd Project, 14 economical houses in Sarasota FL as a variation of the Lamolithic site plan. Unbuilt.
1954 - The Davis Residence, Sarasota FL. Built. Commissioned 1953.
1954 - The Alex Miller Residence, Sarasota FL. Unbuilt.
1954 - The Rose Phillips Wilson Residence, Sarasota, FL. Commissioned 1953. Photo courtesy Library of Congress. She founded the newspaper in Sarasota. She died in 1964. Address unknown. Status unknown. Do you know where it is?
1954 - The R. J. Burgess Residence, Burgess Island FL. Unbuilt.
1955 - The J. V. Taylor Residence, 324 Tarpon Street, Venice FL. Commissioned 1954. Appeared in Architectural Record November 1958, House and Home February 1958. Photo by Alexandre Georges. Sold to Charles and Geraldyne Carlton; Helen and James Carlton; not sure in what order. Sold in 2012 to Terrance Haas.
1955 - The David and Elene Cohen Residence, 101 Garden Lane, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1952. Built by Harold Pickett of Monostructure. Featured in Architectural Record May 1956, Progessive Architecture January 1955, Arts+Architecture September 1954. Sold in 2004 to realtor Martie Lieberman. Restored in 2006 by Seibert Architects with assistance from Bert Brosmith FAIA, manager of Rudolph’s office in 1955 during the original construction. In 2006 Seibert won an AIA FL award for the restoration. Sold in 2009 to Arlene La Marca. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1956 - The Louis C. and Ruth H. Cerrito Residence, 74 Oceanview Highway, Westerly RI. Commissioned 1955. Sold in 1969. Sold to Jeffrey and Karen Hogan in 2000. They gave the house in early 2007 to Kevin Lindores and Daniel Sachs who intended to move it to Catskill NY. According to son Charles Cerrito, that deal fell through and the house was destroyed in the summer 2007. Photos by Charles Cerrito. A new house was built on the site, bottom photo.
1956 - The Davidson Residence, Bradenton FL. Commissioned 1953. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Featured in Architectural Record, November 1956. Address unknown. Status unknown.
1956 - The Sewell C. Biggs Residence, 212 Seabreeze, Delray Beach FL. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Sold in 1973 to Virginia Courtenay, who still owned it as of 2012.
1956 - Four Model Houses for Women's Home Companion Magazine. This is one from 1957 at 859 Edlin Drive, Warson Woods MO. Sold in 1995 to Jon and Bonnie Newell.
Do you know where the others are?
1956 - Model House Representing the Southeast Housing Homestyle Center, aka Grand Rapids Homestyle Center Residence, Grand Rapids MI. Unbuilt. Other participants in the center included Rudolph, Alden Dow, Harwell Hamilton Harris, George Nelson, and Ralph Rapson.
In 1956 Detroit realtor Jason Honigman conceived a project called The Home Research Foundation to showcase new modernist houses on 80 acres outside Grand Rapids, MI. The press referred to it as "an outdoor museum for houses," "the world's most wondrous village," and, eventually, "the lost theme park." The project was extensively promoted in Architectural Record, Arts and Architecture, and Interiors. The first set of 12 homes was to be designed and started in 1956, followed by 13 in 1957, and 25 more over a span of 3 years, ending in 1960. The Home Research Foundation closed its offices in May 1957 due to funding issues. The Homestyle Center was never built but the original lake around which the houses were to be built is now part of the 132 acre Fredrick Meijer Gardens and Sculpture Park which opened in 1995.
1956 - The Frank W. and Martha Applebee Residence, aka the Applebee-Shaw House, 316 Chewacla Drive, Auburn AL. Lamar Brown was supervising architect. Harold Swindell was the builder. Was an Architectural Record house of 1956. Sold to William L. and Anne T. Shaw, who still owned it as fo 2012. Color photo by M. Lewis Kennedy.
1956 - The Barnet Yanofsky Residence, 43 Gate House Road, Chestnut Hill MA, near Newton. Sold by the original owner's children around 1998 to Molly Schaeffer and Jeffrey Wallen who did a restoration with architect Rick Ames. B/W photos by Joseph Molitor.
1956 - The Stinnett Residence, 3215 Glenna Lane, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1955. Owned by Diane J. Stinnett as of 2013.
1956 - The Fletcher Residence, Venice FL. Unbuilt.
1956 - The ??? House, 4023 Shell Road, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Destroyed around 1999; date needs verificiation. Sold to Tom LeFevre around 2005 LeFevre subdivided the land and built at least one house in 2007.
1957 - The Guy Martin Residence, 18 Ridgelawn, Athens AL. Status unknown.
1957 - The Theodore Burkhardt Residence, aka the Burkhardt-Cohen House, 1240 North Casey Key Road, Casey Key, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1956. A young Crutcher Ross watched it being built. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Sold in 1981 to Ed and Betsy Cohen who remain owners as of 2015. Architect Toshiko Mori added the L-shaped guest house in 1998 and a pavilion-addition to the main house in 2003. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Color photos (of the 1998 guest house) by Paul Warchol.
1958 - The Frederick Deering House, 3013 Casey Key Road, Nokomis FL, on Casey Key near Sarasota. Crutcher Ross was a draftman on the house. Photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Commissioned 1956. Featured in Architectural Forum May 1959; AIA Journal June 1960; Arts+Architecture June 1960; House and Garden Juuly 1960. Addition/renovation in 1961. Renovated and expanded again in the 2000's. Sold to Donald R. Wilborn.
1958 - The Maurits and Claire Edersheim House, 862 Fenimore, Larchmont NY. Commissioned 1954. Renovated several times by Rudolph up to a total of 6500 sf. Sold in 2010 to Joseph Viju.
1958 - The Martin R. and Lillian Harkavy Residence, 113 Morningside Drive, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1957. In the top photo, the original house is on the left; addition on the right. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Featured in House and Home June 1959, Arts+Architecture June 1959. Renovated in 1996. Sold. Sold in 2005 to Karen and Hugo Kitzis, who did a 2006 renovation and expansion designed by John Quinn. Sold in 2012 to Bob and Anne Essner.
1959 - The John P. and Alice Fulham Residence, 372 Brownsburg Road, Newtown area of New Hope PA. 25 acres. The Fulham's requested Rudolph not publicize the house, thus it was not "discovered" until 2008 by photographer Chris Mottalini. Sold in 2007 to Linda Richardson. Bottom two photos by Chris Mottalini. Sold in 2014.
1959 - The R. Ambler Liggett Residence, Tampa FL. Commissioned 1958. Top Photo by Alexandre Georges. Bottom photo from Architectural Record. Address unknown. Status unknown.
1960 - The Sidney M. Friedberg Residence, Baltimore MD. Address unknown. Unsure if built. Do you know where it is? Friedberg was President of the Fair Lanes bowling chain.
1960 - The Vacation House for Women's Day Magazine. Unsure if built.
1961 - The R. H. Daisley Residence, 54 Spanish River Drive, Ocean Ridge, Boynton Beach FL. Commissioned 1960. B/W photos by Joseph Molitor/Avery Library Columbia University. Sold in 2008 to Eugene Miller.
1960 - The Pi Kappa Phi Fraternity House, University of Florida, Gainesville FL. Built. Dramatically altered over the years to have a colonial look, with the enclosure of most open spaces including stairways. Status unknown.
1961 - The Kappa Sigma Fraternity House, Auburn University, Auburn AL.
1961 - The Norbert Leslie Silvas Residence, Greenwich CT. Appeared in the November 1962 Architectural Record. Never built, according to the Silvas family. Structural engineer, Herman D. J. Spiegel; mechanical engineer, John L. Alturi.
1961 - The Arthur W. and Theresa Milam Residence, 1033 Ponte Vedra Boulevard, Ponte Vedra Beach FL. Commissioned 1959. Black and white photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Still owned by the Milams as of 2013.
1962 - Married Student Housing for Yale University, aka the Mansfield Apartments, 304 Mansfield Street, New Haven CT. 49 units. Commissioned 1960. Color photo by Bruce Barnes. B/W photo by George Czerna.
1962 - The Peter Schub Residence, Long Island NY. Unsure if built, but likely not.
1962 - The Albert Bostwick Residence, Palm Beach FL. Unbuilt. Commissioned around 1954. Bottom rendering by Mark Palacios.
1965 - The John W. and Frances G. Wallace House, Athens AL. Photos from LIFE Magazine Archive.
1965 - The Callahan Residence, Birmingham AL. Unbuilt.
1965 - The Paul Rudolph Apartment Renovation, 31 High Street, New Haven CT. Commissioned 1958. Rudolph purchased and dramatically remodeled the interior of this 1850's Victorian Italianate house for a studio and residence.
1965 - The Stanley Kinney Residence, Hamilton NY. Unbuilt.
1966 - The Alexander Hirsch and Lewis Turner Townhouse Renovation, aka Halston House, 101 East 63rd Street, New York NY. Includes a private garage and rooftop deck. 7349 square feet. Featured in Architectural Record Houses of 1970. Built by Blitman Corporation. Sold in 1974 to designer Roy Halston Frowick, akaHalston, who made the townhouse "party central" during the 1970's. In 1990, a few months before Halston died, he sold to Gunter Sachs and Gianni Agnelli. Eventually, Sachs bought out Agnelli's interest. Sachs committed suicide in May 2011. Sold to Marin and Montanye LLP, an accounting firm.
1966 - The George Crawford Manor Housing for the Elderly,
90 Park Street,
1966 - The Joseph Caspi Penthouse Residence, New York NY. Possibly located in the former Concourse Hotel, which Caspi bought in 1965 and has since been turned into a senior center. Needs verification.
1967 - Fredella Village Public Housing, 1205 China Street, Vicksburg MS.
1967 - The Frank and Anne H. Parcells Residence, 3 Cameron Place, Grosse Pointe MI. For sale in 2014.
1967 - The Robert Brown Townhouse, 251 West 13th Street, New York NY. Not sure if the model, bottom photo, was carried through to construction. Sold in 1997 to Tom Fontana who undid most of the Rudolph features.
1967 - The Aly Kaiser Apartment, New York NY. Her husband, industrialist Henry J. Kaiser, died in August of 1967. Built.
1967 - New York City Public Housing, 810 Home Street, Bronx NY.
1967 - The Rain Middletown Senior Center, 3033 Middletown Road, Bronx NY.
1967 - Tracey Towers Public Housing, 20 and 40 West Mosholu, Bronx NY. Housed 500 residents per tower. Bottom photo by Kelvin Dickinson.
1967 - Married Student Housing for the University of Virginia, Charlottesville VA. Unbuilt.
1968 - The Beneficent House, Weybosset Hill Housing,
One Chestnut Street,
1968 - The Herbert Green Residence, 138 Stonewall Farm Drive, Honesdale (Cherry Ridge) PA. Sold in 1996 to Edward and Ewa Jakubek.
1968 - Oriental Masonic Gardens Housing, Wilmot Road, New Haven CT. Built by the Prince Hall order of Masons with a HUD mortgage for $3.5 million, the private Oriental Masonic Gardens consisted of 148 units on 12.5 acres. Residences were grouped in fours with a lower module containing living spaces and a module above with bedrooms. Although built incredibly cheaply, they leaked, they were ugly, people hated them, and they were destroyed in 1981, a mere 13 years later.
1968 - Fort Lincoln Public Housing, Washington DC. Unbuilt.
1969 - The Harry Raich Residence, Quogue, NY. Unbuilt.
1969 - The Arne and Eleanor L. B. Lewis Residence, Boston MA. Built. Status and address unknown. Do you know where it is?
1969 - The Richard Chadwick Pistell Residence, Lyford Cay, Nassau, Bahamas. Unbuilt.
1969 - The Gardner and Jan Cowles Apartment Renovation, East Central Park, New York NY. 9000+ sf, one of the largest single-floor apartments in New York. For sale in 2012.
1970 - The Maurice Deane Residence, 35 Pheasant Run, Great Neck NY. Built by Anderson Brothers. Sturctural engineer, Paul Gugliotta. Featured in Architectural Record Houses of 1976. Sold to the Dabah family.
1970 - The John M. Shuey Residence, Bloomfield Hills MI. Unbuilt.
1970 - The Maurits and Claire Edersheim Apartment, 927 Fifth Avenue, New York NY. Still owned by the Edersheims as of 2007.
1970 - New York Public Housing, 725 units in New York NY. Unbuilt.
1970 - Kew Gardens, ten apartment towers (4000 units) of public housing, Queens NY. Unbuilt.
1971 - The Sid R. and Anne H. Bass Residence,
1801 Deepdale Drive, Fort Worth TX.
1971 - The Lee Elman Apartment, New York NY. Furniture and decorative arts. Built.
1971 - The Bert Dweck Residence, 4 Parker Avenue, Deal NJ. B/W photos by Donald Luckenbill. Renovations by Rudolph in 1986.
1971 - The William and Karen Davidson Residence, 4475 Lahser Road, Bloomfield Hills MI. Status unknown. Original house may be destroyed/absorbed. Needs verification.
1972 - The Louis Micheels Residence, 16 Minute Man Hill, Westport CT. Sold to David and Yvette Waldman. B/W photos by Donald Luckenbill. 5th and 6th photos by Chris Mottalini, taken just before the house was destroyed in early 2007, after a brief court fight between the owners and preservationists. Bottom photo of the demolition by Dave Matlow. According to the New York Times, negotiations to save the house failed even though there was a buyer: Steven Campus, then owner of Rudolph's Beekman Place in Manhattan.
1972 - Buffalo Waterfront Housing, aka Shoreline Apartments, 200 Niagara Street, Buffalo NY. Commissioned 1969. Top photo was his original plan, unbuilt. Second photo is what actually got funded and built. 142 units. Featured in the September 1972 edition of Architectural Record. In 2007, a renovation merged many smaller units to a new count of 87. In November 2013, the City Planning Board met to review plans submitted by Norstar Development that would demolish five buildings of the complex. Status unknown.
1972 - The John Pillsbury Residence, Cannes, France. Unbuilt.
1972 - The John B. Rogers Residence, Houston TX. Rudolph also did an addition to their beach house in Palm Beach FL in 1983. Address and status unknown. Do you know where it is?
1973 - The Erwin P. Staller Residence, 19 Count Rumford Lane, Lloyd Harbor NY. Still owned by Staller as of 2010.
1973 - The Paul Rudolph Residence, 23 Beekman Place, New York NY. Commissioned 1967. He designed and built various renovations and additions (1977) through his death in 1997. Sold to Gabrielle and Michael Boyd. Sold to Steven Campus in 2003. Renovated by Della Valle Bernheimer in 2004, adding air conditioning and a sprinkler system. Sold to Mark Fletcher. For rent as of 2013. Top left photo by Catherine Nance. Other photos by Richard Barnes.
1973 - Residence Hall for 200 students, Davidson College, Davidson NC. Unbuilt.
1973 - The Carol Housing Corporation Project, 3500 housing units in Miami FL. Unbuilt.
1974 - The Niel (or Neil) C. Morgan Residence, Aspen CO. Unbuilt.
1974 - The Pan-Lon Engineering and Construction Company Apartment Hotel, Jerusalem, Israel. Unbuilt.
1974 - The Henry Van Os, Sr. Residence, Atlanta GA. Unbuilt. His son, Henry III, said in 2015 that he does not recall his parents commissioning Rudolph; although he his mother definitely was into Modernist design. His father was much more traditional and later built a very traditional house.
1974 - The Joanna T. Steichen Apartment Renovation, New York NY. Built. Peter Mullen was the project architect. Featured in GA Houses 5. Address and status unknown.
1974 - The Lee Elman Renovation, aka Aston Magna, Great Barrington MA. Built. Status and address unknown.
1975 - The Gary Strutin Apartment, New Rochelle NY. 2200 sf on the top floor of his business. Status and address unknown.
1976 - The Nancy E. Houston Residence, 46 Knowles Avenue, Westerly RI. She bought the land with her father, Livingston Houston, in 1975. Commissioned 1975. Sold in 1992 to Barbara Ellinghaus. Available for rent each July.
1976 - The Robert Bernhard Addition, Greenwich CT. Built. Status and address unknown.
1977 - The Robert Fein Addition, Sands Point NY. Unbuilt.
1978 - The Benjamin M. Vallo Residence, 322 East 57th, New York NY. Built. Status unknown.
1978 - The Richard Young Residence, Livingston Manor NY. Unsure if built. Status and address unknown.
1978 - The Rafael Carrillo Residence, New York NY. Unsure if built. Address and status unknown.
1978 - The Dani Siegel Remodeling, Westhampton Beach NY. Built. Status and address unknown.
1979 - The Hong Fok Investment Holdings Private Ltd. Apartments, Singapore. 74 units. Unbuilt.
1980 - Ten Bungalows for the Hong Fok Investment Holding Company, Hong Kong, UK. None were built.
1980 - The Henry Kwee Residence, Singapore. Unbuilt.
1980 - The Hugh Downs Residence, CT. Unbuilt.
1981 - The Kenneth Sherman Residence Alteration and Addition, Wilton CT. Built. Status and address unknown.
1982 - Residence for Beverly Park Estates, Beverly Hills CA. Unsure if built.
1983 - The Michael Floersheim / Strauss Residence, New York NY. Unsure if built. Status unknown.
1983 - The John B. Rogers Residence Addition, Palm Beach, FL. Unsure if built. Status and address unknown.
1983 - The Hillel and Marsha Tobias Remodel, Tuthill Lane, Remsenburg-Speonk NY. Unsure if built.
1984 - The Eisner Residence Remodel, Westport CT. Unsure if built.
1984 - The Michael and Joan Lenihan Glazer Residence, 4686 West 6th Street, Los Angeles CA. 17000 sf. Commissioned 1979. Rudolph's only west coast house. Sold in 1992 to Lonnie C. Blanchard. Sold in 2000 to Michele M. Goffin. Rents for $32,000/month as of 2015.
1984 - The George Pavarini Residence, aka Clifton-On-The-Sound, 183 Byram Shore, Greenwich CT. Status unknown.
1985 - The Marvin and Sybil B. Licht Renovation, 211 Everit Avenue, Hewlett Harbor NY, primarily on the interior. Sold to new owners who undid much of Rudolph's work.
1985 - The Fisher Island Hotel and Condominiums, Miami FL. Unbuilt.
1986 - The Wylie Tuttle Residence, 6360 Swan Creek Road, Rock Hall MD. Status unknown.
1986 - The C. Gordon Murphy Residence, Greenwich CT. Unsure if built.
1986 - The Donald and Cecile Engel Renovation and Addition, 20 Pleasant Ridge Road, Harrison NY. Cecile Engel added a Rudolph-designed pavilion in 1994. 7370 sf. Sold to Frank and Paula Nucaro. For sale in 2011. The interior is an unusual mix of traditional and modern.
1986 - The Richard C. Treistman Renovation and Addition, 550 Illingworth Avenue, Englewood NJ. Status unknown.
1987 - The Colonnade Condos for Pontiac Land Private Ltd., Singapore. Commissioned 1980. Interior photos by Peter Aaron/ESTO.
1989 - The Institution Hill Condos, Singapore. Unbuilt. Project designer, Frederick Gibson.
1989 - The Paul Rudolph and Ernst Wagner Townhouse, aka the Modulighter Building, 246 East 58th Street, New York NY. Home of the Paul Rudolph Heritage Foundation.
1989 - 32nd Street Southeast Company Apartments, New York NY. Built.
1989 - Commercial/Residential Building Renovation, New York NY. Unbuilt.
1990 - The Wee Ee Chao Residence, Singapore. Built. Status and address unknown.
1991 - The Mark Edersheim Additions, 862 Fenimore Road, Mamaroneck NY. Rudolph did additions to this 1958 house in 1982, 1989, and 1991. Second photo is of guest house. Photos by Elizabeth Dooley. Deeded to Claire Edersheim. Deeded in 2010 to Elizabeth and Steven Edersheim. Sold in 2010 to Joseph Ramya and Joseph Viju.
1991 - The Manny Fox and Cynthia Firestone Residence, Sherman CT. Unbuilt.
1991 - The Cheng Wai Keung Residence, Singapore. Designed for one of the richest men in the world at the time. Commissioned 1986. Unsure if built; needs verification.
1992 - The Leslie Friedman Apartment, New York NY. Status and address unknown. Do you know where it is?
1978 - The Donald and Cynthia Zucker Remodel, 42 West 11th Street, New York NY. Cynthia Zucker remarried George Marks. They did a 1993 renovation with Rudolph. Interiors by Cecil Hayes. Deeded to Cynthia Zucker. Sold in 2012 to 42W11 LLC, a lobbying firm.
1994 - The David Eu Residence, Singapore. Unbuilt.
1994 - The Jonathan Formanek Residence, Memphis TN. Unbuilt.
1994 - The Ernst Wagner Residence, Switzerland. Unbuilt. Wagner was Rudolph's personal partner for the last 20 years of his life and created the Paul Rudolph Foundation and later the Paul Rudolph Heritage Foundation.
1994 - The Wee Ee Chao Apartment Duplex, Hong Kong, UK. Unbuilt.
1995 - The Edmund Cheng Residence, Singapore. The project architect was Frederick Gibson. Built. Status and address unknown.
1998 - The Jim Willenborg House, aka the Obokoji House, 1766 Alabama, San Francisco CA. Commissioned 1993. For rent in 2013.
Sources include: Rudolph Archive at UMass, Paul Rudolph Foundation Blog, Paul Rudolph Foundation, Charles Cerrito, Paul Rudolph: Architecture and Urbanism 1946-1974 (in Chinese), Crutcher Ross, The Sarasota School of Architecture 1941-1966 by John Howey, Goshen Chronicle, Frederick Gibson, Paul Rudolph: The Florida Houses by Domin and King, Catherine Westergaard.