PAUL MARVIN RUDOLPH, FAIA (1918-1997)
Rudolph grew up in Elkton KY. His father was a minister and he learned early to pay the piano. He earned his Bachelors degree in Architecture at Auburn University (then known as Alabama Polytechnic Institute) in 1940. After working with E. B. Van Koeren in Birmingham and Ralph Twitchell in Sarasota, he went to the Harvard Graduate School of Design in 1941 to study with Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius. In 1942, he began Naval officer training at MIT and Princeton. After the Navy in 1946, he returned to Harvard to receive his Masters in 1947, still working for Twitchell remotely. Winning a Wheelwright Scholarship, he travelled through Europe from summer 1948 to summer 1949. After Europe, Ralph Twitchell offered a full partnership and he moved to Sarasota FL. They worked together until Rudolph went on his own in 1951.
Rudolph became a leader of the "Sarasota School," a style of architecture founded by Twitchell and associated with Sarasota architects including Ralph Zimmerman, William Zimmerman, Philip Hiss, Jack West, Gene Leedy, Mark Hampton, Phil Hall, Roland Sellew, Tim Seibert, Victor Lundy, Bill Rupp, John and Ken Warriner, Tolyn Twitchell, Bert Brosmith, Frank Folsom Smith, Boyd Blackner, Louis Schneider, James Holiday, Joseph Farrell, and Carl Abbott. With a focus on making architecture be in harmony with its surroundings, Sarasota architecture featured a clean, open contemporary floor plan, filled with light and terrazzo floors, wide overhangs, and flat roofs.
As with most Modernist architects, it was difficult to find competent contractors. Ralph Twitchell's nephew Jack Twitchell built many of their houses.
Rudolph moved to the Yale School of Architecture as Dean in 1958, shortly after designing the Yale Art and Architecture Building, a structure considered his masterpiece, below. He stayed at Yale for six years until moving to New York in 1966. He inspired a generation of architects. The public, however, did not warm to his larger brutalist designs, finding the heavy use of concrete and steel quite ugly.
In 1997, Rudolph passed away in New York City. According to his obituary in The New York Times, “With the exception of Louis I. Kahn, no American architect of his generation enjoyed higher esteem in the 1960’s. But after 1970, his reputation plummeted. Many of his buildings are being torn down, or are in danger of being torn down. Mr. Rudolph leaves behind a perplexing legacy that will take many years to untangle."
At the time of his death he was working on plans for a new town of 250,000 people in Indonesia and a private residence, chapel, and office complex in Singapore.
In the Triangle, he designed the 1972 Burroughs Wellcome Headquarters shown below along with several additions in 1976, 1978, and 1982. The entire site was sold to United Therapeutics in 2012.
United Therapeutics announced in late 2012 they would save the building above as part of a new lab campus, show below.
1941 - The Ralph Twitchell Residence, 101 Big Pass, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Featured in Architectural Forum, September 1947. As of 1969, the owners were Garrison and Marjorie Creighton. Sold in 2005 to Joseph King. Damaged by fire, and destroyed in 2007; land was unbuilt as of 2009. Top photo by Sarasota County History Center. Next photo by Joseph Steinmetz. Remaining photos by Chris Mottalini.
1946 - The Alexander S. Harkavy Residence, Roberts Point, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Featured in the 1947 Architectural Forum. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Photos by Joseph Steinmetz from Architectural Forum.
1946 - The Marion Miller Boat House, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Unbuilt. Designed with Ralph Twitchell.
1946 - The Weekend House, his graduate school project at Harvard. Unbuilt.
1947 - The Burt J. Denman Residence, 4822 Ocean Boulevard, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1946. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Photos courtesy Library of Congress. Destroyed and replaced with these condos, bottom photo.
1947 - The Roberta Finney Guest House, aka Finney Guest Cottage, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Unbuilt.
1947 - The Goar Residence, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Unbuilt.
1947 - The Shute Residence, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Unbuilt.
1948 - The Maynard E. Russell Residence, Tahiti Park, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1947. Featured in Architectural Record, January 1950. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Destroyed.
1948 - The Joseph Janney Steinmetz Photography Studio, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1947. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Has been significantly altered. Photos by Sarasota County Historical Resources.
1948 - The Lamolithic/Lambie Development, 5528, 5540, 5544, 5546 Avenida Del Mare, four concrete houses in Sarasota FL. These photos are from 5540. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Years later, Rudolph would design fourteen economical houses developed for James Stroud and Jessie Boyd was based on a variation of the Lamolithic site plan. Rudolph attempted to create a variety of unit types that were differentiated by subtle spatial manipulation rather than arbitrary pictorial devices such as interior sheathing options or varied roof pitches. They were never built.
1948 - The Revere Quality House, 100 Ogden Lane, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. The house was a cooperative project between the architects, Architectural Forum, Revere Copper and Brass, and the builders Lamolithic Industries. There were originally going to be six houses. When the house opened over 16000 people visited the first year. 2008 restoration and addition by Guy Peterson/OFA. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1948 - The Albert Siegrist Residence, 524 Valencia, Venice FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Chosen as a house of "quality and significance" by the Museum of Modern Art for an exhibition in 1952. Has been significantly altered since.
1949 - The
Marion Miller Guest House, Casey Key,
1949 - The Arthur W. Cheatham House, Lakeland FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell.
1950 - The W. R. Healy Guest House, aka the Cocoon House, 33573 Bayou Louise Lane, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1948. An experiment in structure and technology, using steel straps spanning between side walls to hold up the roof and to create its curved catenary shape. The roof structure is an original technological assembly: the steel straps are fastened to flexible insulation boards, and the roofing material, Cocoon, is sprayed on. This flexible vinyl compound was developed by the U.S. military andused to encase ship components to protect them from the weather. About 1955, it needed to be reroofed and a young Crutcher Ross was on that roofing crew. Sold to Jim LaClair. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1951 - The Alan and Barbara Bennett Residence, 3901 Riverview Boulevard, Bradenton FL. Commissioned 1949. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Sold to a new owner. Sold in 2001 to architect Joseph King - who has written extensively on Rudolph. Top photo by Bobby Bennett. For sale in 2011.
1951 - The W. W. Kerr Residence, 211 Oak Street, Melbourne Beach FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. 2900 sf. Sold in 1988 to Joseph and Hope Petrone. Restored by architect Larry Maxwell of Spacecoast Architects in 2007. Sold to Martine and Bina Rothblatt. Bottom photo courtesy of Library of Congress. Bottom photo by Andrew Roman.
1951 - The Watson
Residence, Gainesville FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell.
1951 - The Lucienne Twitchell Neilson Residence, Martha's Vineyard MA. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. The client was Twitchell's first wife. Commissioned 1947. Destroyed by fire.
1951 - The Marion Coward Residence, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Destroyed 2005. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1951 - The Kate Wheelan Cottage, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Destroyed. Photos from Perspecta.
1951 - The Haywood Apartments, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Unbuilt.
1951 - The Eugene Knott Residence, Yankeetown FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Alhtough often listed as unbuilt, according to Crutcher Ross, it was built but fell down during construction. Jack Twitchell refused to start again, citing insufficient structural integrity of the design, so the project was abandoned.
1952 - The Walter W. and Elaine Walker Guest House, 4143 West Gulf Drive, Sanibel Island FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1951. A year earlier Rudolph designed the Walkers a primary residence which was not built. Color photos by Lloyd Alter. Bottom four photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Still owned by the Walkers as of 2009.
1952 - The Floating Islands Project, Leesburg FL. Unbuilt.
1952 - The Haskins
Residence, Sarasota FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell.
1952 - The Maehlman Guest House, Naples FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1951. Photos courtesy Library of Congress.
1952 - The David and Elene Cohen Residence, 101 Garden Lane, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Sold in 2004 to Martie Lieberman. Restored in 2006 by Seibert Architects with assistance from Bert Brosmith FAIA, manager of Rudolph’s office in 1955 during the original construction. In 2006 Seibert won an AIA FL award for the restoration. Sold in 2009 to Arlene LaMarca. Black and white photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1953 - The Sigma Alpha Epsilon Fraternity House, University of Miami, Miami FL. According to Architectural Forum 99, there were two distinct and separate wings, both two stories high. One contains bedrooms, the other contains the living area. Between them is a spacious court and cylindrical building containing a glassed-in dining room on the lower level and a chapter room on the upper level with louvered walls can be closed to provide absolute privacy for secret cabals. The cylindrical unit seems to float on a long, rectangular pool and will be reflected in it. Unbuilt.
1953 - The Nathan S. Rubin Residence, 1221 North Barcelona, Pensacola FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. sold in 1999 to Catherine D. Kress.
1953 - The Bourne Company Residence, St. Petersburg, FL. Unbuilt.
1953 - The Mahony House, 1205 Donna Drive, Fort Myers FL. Designed with Ralph Twitchell. Commissioned 1952. Sold to owners J. Maggie Stevens and Steve Funnel.
1953 - The Louis C. Cerrito and Ruth Hale Cerrito Addition, oceanfront on Bernard Avenue, Sarasota FL. According to their son Charles Cerrito, Ralph Twitchell designed the original house in 1948, top photo. This addition was commissioned in 1952. The house was sold by Cerrito's heirs and destroyed in the early 2000's.
1953 - The Ingram Hook Guest Residence, 160 Sandy Hook Road, Siesta Key, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1952. Bottom three photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1954 - The Davis
Residence, Sarasota FL. Built. Commissioned 1953.
1954 - The Alex Miller Residence, Sarasota FL. Unbuilt.
1954 - The Albert Bostwick Residence, Palm Beach FL. Unbuilt. Bottom rendering by Mark Palacios.
1954 - The Rose Wilson Residence, Sarasota, FL. Commissioned 1953. Photo courtesy Library of Congress. According to architect Crutcher Ross, he rented a Bill Rupp-designed house from Mrs. Wilson, shared with her brother.
1954 - The Philip Hiss Residence, aka The Umbrella House, aka the Cube House, 1300 Westway Drive, Lido Shore, Sarasota FL. Bert Brosmith, who worked in Rudolph's office, did an addition. The trellis was destroyed in 1966 by Hurricane Alma. Sold to Thomas Kincaid. Sold to Gary and Carol Stover. After several years on the market, sold in 2005 to Vincent and Julie Ciulla, who did a restoration including rebuilding the trellis. Brosmith also designed a studio for Hiss across the street, bottom photo.
1954 - The R. J. Burgess Residence, Burgess Island FL. Unbuilt.
1955 - The J. V. Taylor Residence, 324 Tarpon Street, Venice FL. Commissioned 1954. Photo by Alexandre Georges. Sold to Charles and Geraldyne Carlton.
1956 - The Louis C. and Ruth H. Cerrito Residence, 74 Oceanview HIghway, Westerly RI. Commissioned 1955. Sold in 1969. Sold to Jeffrey and Karen Hogan in 2000. They gave the house in early 2007 to Kevin Lindores and Daniel Sachs who intended to move it to Catskill NY. According to son Charles Cerrito, that deal fell through and the house was destroyed in the summer 2007. Photos by Charles Cerrito. A new house was built on the site, bottom photo.
1956 - The Davidson Residence, Bradenton FL. Commissioned 1953. Photo by Ezra Stoller/Esto.
1956 - The Sewell C.
212 Seabreeze, Delray Beach FL.
1956 - Four Model Houses around the US for Women's Home Companion Magazine. This one from 1957 is at 859 Edlin Drive, Warson Woods MO. Sold in 1995 to Jon and Bonnie Newell.
Do you know where the others are?
1956 - Model House Representing the Southeast Housing Homestyle Center, aka Grand Rapids Homestyle Center Residence, Grand Rapids MI. Unbuilt. Other participants in the center included Alden Dow, Harwell Hamilton Harris, George Nelson, and Ralph Rapson.
In 1956 Detroit realtor Jason Honigman conceived a project called The Home Research Foundation to showcase new modernist houses on 80 acres outside Grand Rapids, MI. The press referred to it as "an outdoor museum for houses," "the world's most wondrous village," and, eventually, "the lost theme park." The project was extensively promoted in major design magazines such as Architectural Record, Arts and Architecture, and Interiors. The first set of 12 homes was to be designed and started in 1956, followed by 13 in 1957, and 25 more over a span of 3 years, ending in 1960. The Home Research Foundation closed its offices in May 1957 due to funding issues. The Homestyle Center was never built but the original lake around which the houses were to be built is now part of the 132 acre Fredrick Meijer Gardens and Sculpture Park, which was planned in 1982 and opened in 1995.
1956 - The Frank Applebee Residence, aka the Applebee-Shaw House, Auburn AL. He was the Chair of the Art and Architecture Department at Auburn. Lamar Brown was supervising architect. Harold Swindall was the builder. An Architectural Record house of 1956. Sold to the Shaw family at some point. Color photo by M. Lewis Kennedy.
1956 - The Barnet Yanofsky Residence, 43 Gate House Road, Chestnut Hill MA, near Newton. Sold by the original owner's children around 1998 to Molly Schaeffer and Jeffrey Wallen who did a restoration with architect Rick Ames. B/W photos by Joseph Molitor.
1956 - The Stinnette
3215 Glenna Lane, Sarasota FL.
1956 - The Fletcher Residence, Venice FL. Unsure if built.
1957 - The Martin Residence, 18 Ridgelawn, Athens AL.
1957 - The Theodore Burkhardt Residence, 1240 North Casey Key Road, Casey Key, Sarasota FL. A young Crutcher Ross watched them build it. Commissioned 1956. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Sold to the Cohens. Remodeled in 1996 by Toshiko Mori. Color photos by Paul Warchol.
1958 - The Maurits and Claire Edersheim House, 862 Fenimore, Larchmont NY. Commissioned 1954. Renovated several times by Rudolph up to a total of 6500 sf. On the market 2009-2010.
1958 - The Martin R. and Lillian Harkavy Residence, 113 Morningside Drive, Sarasota FL. Commissioned 1957. In the top photo, the original house is on the left; addition on the right. B/W photos by Ezra Stoller/Esto. Renovated in 1996. Sold. Sold in 2005 to Karen and Hugo Kitzis, who did a 3006 renovation and expansion designed by John Quinn. Sold in 2012.
1959 - The Fullham Residence, Newtown PA. The Fullham's requested Rudolph not publicize the house and as a result, it was not "discovered" until 2008 by Chris Mottalini. Photos by Chris Mottalini.
1959 - The R. Ambler Liggett Residence, Tampa FL. Commissioned 1958. Top Photo by Alexandre Georges. Bottom photo from Architectural Record.
1960 - The Sidney
M. Friedberg Residence, Baltimore MD.
1960 - Vacation House for Women's Day Magazine. Unsure if it was built.
1960 - The R. H.
Daisley Residence, Ocean Ridge, Inley Cay, Palm Beach FL.
1960 - Pi Kappa Phi Fraternity House, University of Florida, Gainesville FL. Dramatically altered over the years to have a colonial look, with the enclosure of most open spaces including stairways.
1961 - Kappa Sigma Fraternity House, Auburn University, Auburn AL.
1961 - The Norbert Leslie Silvas Residence, Greenwich CT. Appeared in the November 1962 Architectural Record. Never built, according to the Silvas family. Structural engineer, Herman D. J. Spiegel; Mechanical engineer, John L. Alturi.
1962 - Married Student Housing for Yale University, aka the Mansfield Apartments, 304 Mansfield Street, New Haven CT. 49 units. Commissioned 1960. Color photo by Bruce Barnes. BW photo by George Czerna.
1965 - The John W. and
Wallace House, Athens AL. Photos from LIFE Magazine Archive.
1965 - The Callahan Residence, Birmingham AL. Unbuilt.
1965 - The Paul Rudolph Apartment Renovation, 31 High Street, New Haven CT. Commissioned 1958. Rudolph purchased and dramatically remodeled the interior of this 1850's Victorian Italianate house for a studio and residence.
1965 - The Stanley Kinney Residence, Hamilton NY. Unsure if built.
1966 - The Alexander Hirsch and Lewis Turner Townhouse Renovation, aka Halston House, 101 East 63rd Street, New York NY. Includes a private garage and rooftop deck. 7349 square feet. Featured in Architectural Record Houses of 1970. Built by Blitman Corporation. Sold in 1974 to designer Roy Halston Frowick, aka Halston, who made the townhouse "party central" during the 1970's. In 1990, a few months before Halston died, he sold to Gunter Sachs and Gianni Agnelli. Eventually, Sachs bought out Agnelli's interest. Sachs committed suiciide in May 2011. For sale in 2011.
1966 - The George
Crawford Manor Housing for the Elderly,
90 Park Street,
1966 - The Joseph Caspi Penthouse Residence, New York NY. Possibly located in the former Concourse Hotel, which Caspi bought in 1965 and has since been turned into a senior center. Needs verification.
1967 - Fredella Village Public Housing, 1205 China Street, Vicksburg MS.
1967 - Married Student Housing for the University of Virginia, Charlottesville VA. Unbuilt.
1967 - The Frank H. Parcells Residence, 3 Cameron Place, Grosse Pointe MI.
1967 - The Robert Brown Townhouse, 251 West 13th Street, New York NY. Not sure if the model, bottom photo, was carried through to construction. Sold in 1997 to Tom Fontana who undid most of the Rudolph features.
1967 - The Aly Kaiser Apartment, New York NY. Her husband, industrialist Henry J. Kaiser, died in August of 1967. Not sure if this was built.
1967 - New York City
810 Home Street, Bronx NY.
1967 - The Rain Middletown Senior Center, 3033 Middletown Road, Bronx NY.
1967 - Tracey Towers Public Housing, 20 and 40 West Mosholu, Bronx NY. Housed 500 residents per tower. Bottom photo by Kelvin Dickinson.
1967 - Married Student Housing, University of Virginia, Charlottesville VA. Unbuilt.
1968 - The Beneficent
House, Weybosset Hill Housing,
One Chestnut Street,
1968 - The Herbert Green Residence, 138 Stonewall Farm Drive, Honesdale (Cherry Ridge) PA. Sold to Edward and Ewa Jakubek. May be destroyed; some aerial maps (bottom right) show an empty lot.
1968 - Oriental Masonic Gardens Housing, Wilmot Road, New Haven CT. Built by the Prince Hall order of Masons with a HUD mortgage for $3.5 million, the private Oriental Masonic Gardens consisted of 148 units on 12.5 acres. Residences were grouped in fours with a lower module containing living spaces and a module above with bedrooms. Although built incredibly cheaply, they leaked, they were ugly, people hated them, and they were destroyed in 1981, a mere 13 years later.
1968 - Fort Lincoln Public Housing, Washington DC. Unbuilt.
1969 - The Harry Raich Residence, Quogue, NY. Unbuilt.
1969 - The Arne Lewis Residence, Boston MA. Unsure if built.
1969 - The Richard Pistell Residence, Lyford Cay, Nassau, Bahamas. Presumed unbuilt.
1969 - The Gardner Cowles Apartment Renovation, Eastside, New York NY.
1970 - The
Maurice Deane Residence,
35 Pheasant Run, Great Neck NY.
1970 - The John M. Shuey Residence, Bloomfield Hills MI. Unbuilt.
1970 - The Maurits and Claire Edersheim Apartment, 927 Fifth Avenue, New York NY. Still owned by the Edersheims as of 2007.
1970 - New York Public Housing, 725 units in New York NY. Unbuilt.
1970 - Kew Gardens, ten apartment towers (4000 units) of public housing, Queens NY. Unbuilt.
1971 - The Sid R. and
Anne H. Bass Residence,
1801 Deepdale Drive, Fort Worth TX.
1971 - The Elman Apartment, New York NY. Furniture and decorative arts.
1971 - The Bert Dweck Residence, Deal NJ. Photos by Donald Luckenbill.
1971 - The William
and Karen Davidson Residence,
4475 Lahser Road,
1972 - The Louis Micheels Residence, 16 Minute Man Hill, Westport CT. Sold to David and Yvette Waldman. B/W photos by Donald Luckenbill. 5th and 6th photos by Chris Mottalini, taken just before the house was destroyed in early 2007, after a brief court fight between the owners and preservationists. Bottom photo of the demolition by Dave Matlow. According to the New York Times, negotiations to save the house failed even though there was a buyer: Steven Campus, the owner at that time of Rudolph's Beekman Place in Manhattan.
1972 - Buffalo Waterfront Housing, aka Shoreline Apartments, Buffalo NY. Commissioned 1969. Top photo was his original plan, unbuilt. Second photo is what actually got funded and built. 142 units. In 2007, a renovation merged many smaller units to a new count of 87.
1972 - The John Pilsbury Residence, Cannes, France.
- The John B. Rogers Residence, Houston TX.
1973 - The Erwin P. Staller Residence, 19 Count Rumford Lane, Lloyd Harbor NY.
1973 - The Paul Rudolph Residence, his own at 23 Beekman Place, New York NY. Commissioned 1967. He designed and built various renovations and additions through his death in 1997. Sold to Gabrielle and Michael Boyd. Sold to Steven Campus in 2003. Renovated by Della Valle Bernheimer in 2004, adding air conditioning and a sprinkler system. Sold to Mark Fletcher. For rent as of 2013. Top left photo by Catherine Nance. Other photos by Richard Barnes.
1973 - Residence Hall for 200 students, Davidson College, Davidson NC. Unbuilt.
1973 - 3500 Housing Units in Miami FL. Unbuilt.
1974 - The Niel C. Morgan Residence, Aspen CO.
1974 - The Steichen Apartment, New York NY.
1974 - Residence for Henry Van Os, Sr., Atlanta GA. Unsure if built.
1974 - The Elman Residence, Great Barrington MA.
1976 - The Nancy E. Houston Residence, 46 Knowles Avenue, Westerly RI. She bought the land with her father, Livingston Houston, in 1975. Commissioned 1975. Sold in 1992 to Barbara Ellinghaus. Now a vacation rental in July.
1976 - The Robert Bernhard Addition, Greenwich CT.
1977 - The Robert Fein Addition, Sands Point NY.
1978 - The Vallo M. Benjamin Residence, 322 East 57th, New York NY.
1978 - The Richard Young Residence, Livingston Manor NY.
1978 - The Dani Siegel Remodeling, Westhampton Beach NY.
1978 - The Donald Zucker Remodeling, New York NY.
1980 - Ten Bungalows for the Hong Fok Investment Holding Company, Hong Kong. None were built.
1980 - The Henry Kwee Residence, Singapore. Unsure if built.
1980 - The Hugh Downs Residence, CT. Unsure if built.
1981 - The Kenneth Sherman Residence Alteration and Addition, Wilton CT.
1982 - Residence for Beverly Park Estates, Beverly Hills CA. Unsure if built.
1983 - The Michael Floersheim / Strauss Residence, New York NY.
1983 - The John B. Rogers Residence Addition, Palm Beach, FL.
1983 - The Hillel and Marsha Tobias Remodeling, Tuthill Lane, Remsenburg-Speonk, NY.
1984 - Eisner Residence Remodeling, Westport CT. Unsure if built.
1984 - The Michael Glazer and Joan Lenihan Residence, West 6th Street, Hancock Park area of Los Angeles CA. Commissioned 1979. Rudolph's only west coast house. For sale in 2010.
1984 - The George Pavarini Residence, 183 Byram Shore, Greenwich CT. Known as Clifton-On-The-Sound.
1985 - The Marvin and Sybil B. Licht Renovation, 211 Everit Avenue, Hewlett Harbor NY, primarily on the interior. Has been sold to new owners who have undone much of his work.
1986 - The Wylie Tuttle Residence, 6360 Swan Creek Road, Rock Hall MD.
1986 - The Gordon Murphy Residence, Greenwich CT. Unsure if built.
1986 - The Bert Dweck Residence, 4 Parker Avenue, Deal NJ.
1986 - The Donald and Cecile Engel Renovation and Addition, 20 Pleasant Ridge Road, Harrison, NY. Cecile Engel added a Rudolph-designed pavilion in 1994. 7370 sf. Sold to Frank and Paula Nucaro. For sale 2010-2011. The interior is an unusual mix of traditional and modern.
1986 - The Richard Treistman Renovation and Addition, 550 Illingworth, Englewood NJ.
1987 - The Colonnade Condos, Singapore. Commissioned 1980. Interior photos by Peter Aaron/ESTO.
1989 - Institution Hill Condos, Singapore. Unbuilt. Project designer Frederick Gibson.
1989 - The Paul Rudolph
and Ernst Wagner Townhouse,
246 East 58th Street, New York NY.
1990 - The Wee Ee Chao Residence, Singapore. According to the Paul Rudolph Foundation, it was built.
1991 - The Mark Edersheim Additions, 862 Fenimore Road, Mamaroneck NY. Rudolph did additions to this 1958 house in 1982, 1989, and 1991. Second photo is of guest house. Photos by Elizabeth Dooley. On the market in 2010.
1991 - The Fox-Firestone Residence, Sherman CT. Unbuilt.
1991 - The Cheng Wai Keung Residence, Singapore. Designed for one of the richest men in the world. Commissioned 1986.
1992 - The Leslie Friedman Apartment, New York NY.
1993 - The Cynthia Zucker Remodel, 42 West 11th Street, New York NY.
Interiors by Cecil Hayes. For sale in 2010.
1994 - The David Eu Residence, Singapore. Not sure if this was built.
1994 - The Jonathan Formanek Residence, Memphis TN. Unsure if built.
1994 - The Ernst Wagner Residence, Switzerland. Not sure if this was built. Wagner was Rudolph's personal partner for the last 20 years of his life. Several years after Rudolph's death, Wagner started a foundation to preserve Rudolph's legacy which continues today.
1994 - A Luxury
Apartment Duplex for Wee Ee Chao, Hong Kong.
1995 - The Edmund Cheng Residence, Singapore. The project architect was Frederick Gibson. According to the Paul Rudolph Foundation, it was indeed built.
1998 - The Jim Willenborg House, aka the Obokoji House, 1766 Alabama, San Francisco CA.
Commissioned 1993. For rent in 2013.
Sources include: Rudolph Archive at UMass, Paul Rudolph Foundation Blog, Paul Rudolph Foundation, Sarasota Records, Charles Cerrito, Paul Rudolph: Architecture and Urbanism 1946-1974 (in Chinese), Crutcher Ross, The Sarasota School of Architecture 1941-1966 by John Howey, Goshen Chronicle, Frederick Gibson, Paul Rudolph: The Florida Houses by Domin and King, Catherine Westergaard.
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